Project Kill the Flashover was born in June of 2011 over two plates of chicken wings in Charlotte NC with Joe Starnes and Shawn Oke discussing the mixing the study of Air Track Management and Solution Steams to prevent thermal injuries during interior fire suppression tactics.
The idea quickly grew into producing a "live" burn test in Shelby NC. Many of our friends were contacted for their expertise and support. Vendors were contacted to support the test. Oak Grove VFD under the leadership of Chief Perry Davis supported the test with engines, tools and equipment. Chief Davis included the Fire Control students from the Cleveland Community College fire curriculum for logistical support and learning opportunities. Surrounding agencies loaned such items as command and support trailers.
Vendors such as ISG Infrasys, Super Vac, (SVI), Tempest, Scott, Novacool, Fire Rescue TV, Accountability Tag.com, Akron Brass, Fire News.net, Wesson Septic Tank Service, Walmart to name a few contributed goods and services to the project.
The first burn was in November of 2011. The platform for the future test focus on the 3 legged stool model shown above.
* Flow Path * Solutions Streams * Thermal Imaging
In 2013 the KTF Bar Stool has evolved to:
* Air Track Management * Enhanced Water Streams * Thermal Data
Take a few minutes and go to each page for the "learn" section of our mission.
Residential Fire Suppression Theory or Not?
Why learn about theory as a firefighter or fire officer?
What is your theory of Fire Suppression? Do you know what your theory is?
Definitions Issue II Compiled by Vicki Schmidt 2013
This document is created to assist with communications and understanding for students and others involved with KTF activities. To the best of our ability we have created some definitions to incorporate comprehensive terminology from a variety of professional and experienced sources. These definitions and meanings are related to compartment fire applications and while they may be freely shared, This document is established for KTF purposes only.
* definition is taken directly from proposed NFPA 1001 by Dan Madrzykowsk (NIST)
All terminology is designed for KTF purposes only and
may or may not be relevant to other programs or projects.
The movement of smoke and air within the flow path. (cfbt-us)
A tactic where doors to a room/compartment are closed to limit, stop, control, or slow down further development of the fire /fire growth
Appendix Door Control* Steps must be taken to prevent the door from locking behind the entering members. By controlling the door, we are controlling the flow path of fire conditions from the high pressure of the fire area towards the low pressure area on the other side of the door.
A deflagration resulting from the sudden introduction of air into a confined space containing oxygen deficient products of incomplete combustion.
Bi-Directional Flow (see Intake / Exhaust)
The fire dynamic created when over-pressure seeks to relieve to a lower pressure area which then creates a flow path of intake air under the exhausting pressurized air: a bi-directional air track is movement of smoke out and air in along the same flow path or at an opening.
Churn (gravity current)
Turbulence at the neutral plane of bi-directional flow
Use of applied water with an agent (EWS) to extend the cycle operations time by slowing and/or stopping the off gassing of combustible - thus preventing or delaying fire growth.
The stage of fire development within a structure characterized by either a decrease in the fuel load or available oxygen to support combustion, resulting in lower temperatures and lower pressure in the fire area.
The process of ensuring the entrance door providing access to the fire area is controlled and closed as much as possible to limit fire development by controlling the flow path of fresh air at the lower level of the open door towards the seat of the fire.
Early Decay The resulting fire behavior when a compartment fire transitions from a fuel controlled fire to a ventilation controlled fire.
Enhanced Water Stream (EWS)
Flowing water with an agent (foam, CAFS)
Exhaust (see Intake / Bi-Directional Flow)
Extreme Fire Behavior (for KTF study purposes)
A fire event greater than 500 degrees with an active air track poised to endanger firefighters (where thermal insult to the firefighter and or his/her gear takes place)
Fire Behavior The expected and sometime unexpected fire growth or decay process
The study of how fires start, spread and develop: how chemistry, fire science, material science and the mechanical engineering disciplines of fluid mechanics and heat transfer interact to influence fire behavior. (NIST)
Fire Growth Potential*
The potential size or intensity of a fire based on the available fuel load.
A transition phase in the development of a compartment fire in which surfaces exposed to thermal radiation reach ignition temperature more or less simultaneously and fire spreads rapidly throughout the space, resulting in full room involvement or total involvement of the compartment or enclosed space.
The flow path is the volume between an inlet and an outlet that allows the movement of heat and smoke from the higher pressure within the fire area towards the lower pressure areas accessible via doors and window openings.
FV/VC Point The point at which a fire makes the transition from fuel controlled and becomes ventilation controlled.
Fire Decay Attack TBD
A function of factors including: fuel properties, fuel quantity, ventilation (natural or mechanical), compartment geometry (volume and ceiling height), location of fire, and ambient conditions (temperature, wind, etc). (NIST)
Fire Gas Ignition (FGI)
Equated to smoke explosion, one of the three groups of Rapid Fire Progress (RFP)
Gravity Current (churn)
The flow current created due to air-density differences of bi-directional flow
A a major factor in the ignition, growth, spread, decay and extinction of a fire. Heat is always transferred from the hotter object to the cooler object - heat energy transferred to an object increases the object's temperature, and heat energy transferred from an object decreases the object's temperature. (NIST)
Neutral Plane (neutral zone)
1. Space between the over-pressure and the under-pressure air zones in a contained environment
2. Space between the intake track and the exhaust track. Location of short-flaming (rollover) as under-pressure demand and air churn increase.
Pressure in a closed area due to the heating and expansion of gasses
· Thermal stratification of smoke storage in an area where there is no flow path.
· Smoke/gasses that occur and do not exhaust and are stored in the structure as ready-to-burn fire gases.
"the plug" is a slang for the smoke / gases that fill up a container behind the air track (intake air supporting combustion). The heat / off gassing that occurs and does not exhaust and is stored in the structure as ready to burn fire gases.
Rapid Fire Progress (RFP) There are three groups of RFP: backdraft, flashover and smoke explosion (fire/gas ignition FGI)
Shear Layer (K Lambert)
A layer between bi-directional flow where a flammable mixture is formed. (When this
flammable mixture meets an ignition source, the mixture is ignited)
Smoke Explosion Equated to fire/gas ignition, one of the three groups of Rapid Fire Progress (RFP)
Subject Matter Expert (SME)
One of three groups of Rapid Fire Progress (RFP)
Ventilation Induced Flashover
Under-ventilated Fire (see ventilation limited)
A static stage in a compartment fire that has become ventilation controlled before flashover
(often equated with ventilation limited)
The movement of air or smoke in a single direction along a flow path (air track) or at an opening.
A fire whose growth is controlled by the lack of air/ventilation
Ventilation Induced Flashover (see Flashover)
A flashover initiated by the introduction of oxygen into a pre-heated, fuel rich (smoke filled), oxygen deficient area. (One type of flashover within the flashover group of Rapid Fire Progress RFP)
A fire in which the heat release rate or growth is controlled by the amount of air available to the fire.
Ventilation Limited (see under-ventilated)
A stage in a compartment fire's growth and development, with the premise that it will likely reach a different stage (self extinguish or flashover) sometime in the future. Note – not all compartment fires experience this stage. (often equated with under-ventilated)
1. A tactic to relieve over pressurization and raise the neutral plane of bi-directional flow
2. The intentional creation of a vertical directed air flow to provide a tactical advantage for removing / clearing gases from a compartment not involved in fire.